# Tools for Teachers: Multiplication Table

Mar 062011

So far, I have shared 2 other tools for teachers, a 100 Chart and a DIY 100 Chart, which I use to target Salem-Keizer math standards in my classroom. You can find them both available for download at my Teachers page.

Today, I’d like to share my Multiplication Table. I keep multiple laminated copies (enough for each student) in a designated place of my classroom, so my students know exactly where to find it if they decide they need it.

## Uses for Learning

I find the multiplication table especially helpful for students who are not yet fluent with basic multiplication facts (5×8, 9×3, 2×4, etc), but are learning skills and/or concepts that require the use of those facts. Let’s look at an example of 4th grade students learning how to find the area of shapes.

The most important thing is for students to learn to use the formula A = L x W. Imagine the length of the rectangle on problem number five is 3 inches and the width is 4 inches. You (the teacher) observe both Kourtney and Aaron have input those values into the formula and are just figuring out the answer. Imagine Aaron recites the fact he has memorized and has the correct answer within 3 seconds. Now you look at Kourtney, and it takes her 30 seconds to do the same. Who is going to complete more problems on the assignment? Who is going to have more opportunities to practice the new skill? Who will have a better grasp of how to find the area of a shape? Who will have the time to move onto “challenge” material? Obviously, “Aaron” is the answer to these questions.

What happens if I give Kourtney a multiplication table? What happens if she is able to find the answers as quickly as Aaron can think of them? I’ll tell you what happens. She has as many opportunities to practice as Aaron. She is able to move onto the “challenge” questions too. She is able to overcome her weakness and demonstrate the mastery of the new skill.

You might be thinking, “Well, they still need to learn their facts. They’ll use them all the time in real life.” I agree, but I do not let their weakness prevent them from learning new skills/concepts or having the opportunity to move onto more challenging material. The more effective way to improve weaknesses is to provide targeted interventions and/or additional opportunities for that students to practice.

My next post will share one way to provide additional opportunities to improve their fluency with basic multiplication facts with my Do-It-Yourself Multiplication Table.

In 2nd grade, students learn to count in multiples of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 100. This sets the stage for 3rd grade, when students learn to apply the concept of multiplication as repeated addition. By 4th grade students will be expected to multiply multi-digit numbers together effectively. And in 5th grade, students will build on their knowledge of multiplication, and develop an understanding of division.

### Oregon State Core Standard

3.2 Number and Operations, Algebra, and Data Analysis: Develop understandings of multiplication and division, and strategies for basic multiplication facts and related division facts.
4.2 Number and Operations and Algebra: Develop fluency with multiplication facts and related division facts, and with multi-digit whole number multiplication.
5 .2 Number and Operations and Algebra: Develop an understanding of and fluency with division of whole numbers.

### Salem-Keizer Math Standard

3.2.1 Represent and apply the concept of multiplication as repeated addition.
4.2.4 Develop and use accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods to multiply multi-digit whole numbers.
5.2.4 Develop and use accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods to find quotients for multi-digit division problems.